Genocide is defined as the “deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, caste, religious, or national group”. Genocide is particularly linked with World War II and the mass execution of Jews. However, the United Nations definition indicates that “causing serious mental or bodily harm towards a group” is an integral component of genocide. Therefore, when looking at Aboriginals and their history, genocide is represented by colonialism through the exploring, conquering and settling on land. With the introduction of regulations and policies to “civilize” the Indian, the government caused “serious mental or bodily harm”, therefore the historical treatment of Aboriginals should be legally defined as genocide.
As Europeans arrived in North America, they viewed Aboriginals as being inferior to them in several different ways. Although Aboriginals had their own governance systems, laws, and ways of living, they were dehumanized and labelled as being savages or beasts by European settlers. This labelling was a way to rationalize European expansion and exploitation of Aboriginal peoples and their territory. European westernized ways of thinking assumed that anything non-European represented backward thinking. Europeans who were directly involved in the fur trade saw and the settling of the land saw that the Aboriginals were a potential threat to any gain of profit or colonization.
Millions of Aboriginals died as they were purposely given blankets that contained small pox (Thorner, 2003). Aboriginals had never been in contact with these diseases; therefore they did not develop any immunity to them. Diseases that were brought over by Europeans included tuberculosis, measles, venereal disease, influenza and small pox. As a result, these epidemics spread inland through encounters with Europeans and through trade (Thorner, 2003). Several million Aboriginal people were infected and eventually died. Therefore one can argue this was a way to reduce the Aboriginal population, so Europeans could expand further into Canada without as much resistance.
Moreover, as the Indian Act was introduced, Aboriginals were pushed to assimilate. Aboriginals became defined, as Indians were seen as being of status or non-status. However, several incentives and regulations were introduced that pushed Aboriginals to change their status. Incentives such as the right to vote were developed through systems of enfranchisement. Moreover, individuals would lose their status if they became doctors, lawyers and clergy men or even if they acquired a university degree (Monchalin & Marques, 2013). As Aboriginals were placed on reserves, they were not able to leave the reserve without permission of an Indian Agent. These men resided over the reserve, and were able to enforce laws that prohibited Potlatches and Sun Dances. Although these rituals were an integral part of Aboriginal culture, they were banned from reserves.
The introduction of residential schools was an instrumental part of Canadian history, which many have argued was a cultural genocide for Aboriginal children. These children were forcibly removed from their families and taken to residential schools. They were required to remove their traditional clothing and to cut their hair. In addition, they were given English or French names as their more traditional names were not acceptable. These children were severely and cruelly punished if they spoke their mother tongue. The education they received was not adequate, and it usually focused on labour training and domestic work (Chansonneuve, 2005). As a result, individuals who survived these schools were not able to find work that was suitable for further advancement as their abilities were limited.
These children were physically, sexually, emotionally and mentally abused. They were denied a safe family environment and subjected to severe violence. They were denied the teachings of their parents and of their culture. As a result, they were not able to understand or acquire the values, attitudes, or beliefs of Aboriginal culture. Several individuals did not acquire life skills or parenting skills which has impacted their children and their children’s children (Monchalin & Marques, 2013).
Therefore, several individuals turned to substances such as drugs and alcohol to overcome many of these experiences. This substance abuse has increased crime rates as there is a direct link with alcohol and crime. Moreover, these individuals are more prone to commit acts of violence, as they have been traumatized by their experiences (Monchalin & Marques, 2013). As a result, there is a widespread over presentation of Aboriginals in Canadian prisons. In addition, Aboriginals who rely on substances were more likely to commit suicide (Chansonneuve, 2005). The rates of suicide amongst Aboriginals are higher than the general population (Howard, 2010). Other factors that are associated with residential schools include disconnected families, families with single parents, and family violence (Monchalin & Marques, 2013). Family violence and increased rates of poverty have been an instrumental factor in the removal of Aboriginal children from their families. This then creates more of a disconnect from Aboriginal culture as these children are placed in foster homes.
Thus, through colonization, aggressive assimilation and residential schools, the treatment of Aboriginals should be defined legally as genocide.
Howard, C. (2010). Suicide and Aboriginal Youth. Sudbury: Laurentian University.
Thorner, T. (2003). A Few Acres of Snow. Toronto, Canada: Broadview Press.
Chansonneauve, Deborah. (2005). Reclaiming Connections: Understanding Residential School Trauma among Aborginal People. Section I I: Residential Schools. P.33-48. Ottawa, ON: Aboriginal Healing Foundation.
Monchalin, L, Marques, O. (2013) Preventing Crime and Poor Health Among Aboriginal People: The Potential for Preventative Programming. First Peoples Child & Family Review, 7(2), 112-29.